Rochell Weser
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Achilles Tendon Rupture How Do I Know I Have It?

Overview
Achilles Tendon
An Achilles tendon injury can affect both professional and amateur athletes. The Achilles tendon is one of the longer tendons in your body, stretching from the bones of your heel to your calf muscles. You can feel it, a springy band of tissue at the back of your ankle and above your heel. It allows you to extend your foot and point your toes to the floor. Unfortunately, it's a commonly injured tendon. Many Achilles tendon injuries are caused by tendinitis, in which the tendon becomes swollen and painful. In a severe Achilles tendon injury, too much force on the tendon can cause it to tear partially or rupture completely.

Causes
The tendon usually ruptures without any warning. It is most common in men between the ages of 40-50, who play sports intermittently, such as badminton and squash. There was probably some degeneration in the tendon before the rupture which may or may not have been causing symptoms.

Symptoms
Patients present with acute posterior ankle/heel pain and may give a history of ?felt like someone kicked me from behind?. Patients may report a direct injury, or report the pain started with jumping or landing on a dorsiflexed foot. It is important to elicit in the history any recent steroid or flouroqunolone usage including local steroid injections, and also any history of endocrine disorders or systemic inflammatory conditions.

Diagnosis
Laboratory studies usually are not necessary in evaluating and diagnosing an Achilles tendon rupture or injury, although evaluation may help to rule out some of the other possibilities in the differential diagnosis. Plain radiography. Radiographs are more useful for ruling out other injuries than for ruling in Achilles tendon ruptures. Ultrasonography of the leg and thigh can help to evaluate the possibility of deep venous thrombosis and also can be used to rule out a Baker cyst, in experienced hands, ultrasonography can identify a ruptured Achilles tendon or the signs of tendinosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI can facilitate definitive diagnosis of a disrupted tendon and can be used to distinguish between paratenonitis, tendinosis, and bursitis.

Non Surgical Treatment
To give the best prospects for recovery it is important to treat an Achilles' tendon rupture as soon as possible. If a complete rupture is treated early the gap between the two ends of the tendon will be minimised. This can avoid the need for an operation or tendon graft. There are two forms of treatment available for an Achilles' tendon rupture; conservative treatment and surgery. Conservative treatment will involve the affected leg being placed in a cast and series of braces with the foot pointing down to allow the two ends of the tendon to knit together naturally.
Achilles Tendinitis

Surgical Treatment
This injury is often treated surgically. Surgical care adds the risks of surgery, there are for you to view. After the surgery, the cast and aftercare is typically as follows. A below-knee cast (from just below the knee to the tips of the toes) is applied. The initial cast may be applied with your foot positioned in a downward direction to allow the ends of the tendon to lie closer together for initial healing. You may be brought back in 2-3 week intervals until the foot can be positioned at 90 degrees to the leg in the cast. The first 6 weeks in the cast are typically non-weight bearing with crutches or other suitable device to assist with the non-weight bearing requirement. After 6 weeks in the non-removable cast, a removable walking cast is started. The removable walking cast can be removed for therapy, sleeping and bathing. The period in the removable walking cast may need to last for an additional 2-6 weeks. Your doctor will review a home physical therapy program with you (more on this program later) that will typically start not long after your non-removable cast is removed. Your doctor may also refer you for formal physical therapy appointments. Typically, weight bearing exercise activities are kept restricted for at least 4 months or more. Swimming or stationary cycling activities may be allowed sooner. Complete healing may take 12 months or more.

Prevention
The best treatment of Achilles tendonitis is prevention. Stretching the Achilles tendon before exercise, even at the start of the day, will help to maintain ankle flexibility. Problems with foot mechanics can also lead to Achilles tendonitis. This can often be treated with devices inserted into the shoes such as heel cups, arch supports, and custom orthotics.
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